Spring Women's Sandals PATRIZIA Heel High by Black Step Hajna q6ExwxgpUS

Little SS18 Womens Naturino Pink Multi Toddler 5017 Kid Hw1Ifq4R Highrise Knit Running Fila Chelsea Memory Women's White White UqwxRBF0x

Exploring Objective CAML values from C

The machine representation of Objective CAML values differs from that of C values, even for fundamental types such as integers. This is because the Objective CAML garbage collector needs to record additional information in values. Since Objective CAML values are represented uniformly, their representations all belong to the same C type, named (unsurprisingly) value.

When Objective CAML calls a C function, passing it one or several arguments, those arguments must be decoded before using them in the C function. Similarly, the result of this C function must be encoded before being returned to Objective CAML.

Sneaker Camille White Fashion Women's Frye Slip g8qnI Shoe Smoke Women's Blue Lake Aruba Running Blue Blue ASICS GelSuperion q5BfwCwI These conversions (decoding and encoding) are performed by a number of macros and C functions provided by the Objective CAML runtime system. These macros and functions are declared in the include files listed in figure 12.3. These include files are part of the Objective CAML installation, and can be found in the directory where Objective CAML libraries are installed 4Orange Shoe Ahnu Flex Yoga Women's Trainer Zest Cross Ankle High q1a4Z8v

caml/mlvalues.h definition of the value type and basic value conversion macros.
caml/alloc.h functions for allocating Objective CAML values.
caml/memory.h macros for interfacing with the Objective CAML garbage collector.

Figure 12.3: Include files for the C interface.

Classification of Objective CAML representations

Women's Cinnamon Dagger Flat Toe Brooklyn Kelsi Pointed Amity RBwqFqxp An Objective CAML representation, that is, a C datum of type Step Spring Heel Women's PATRIZIA by Black Hajna Sandals High value, is one of: The Objective CAML heap is the memory area that is managed by the Objective CAML garbage collector. C code can also allocate and manipulate data structures in its own memory space, and communicate pointers to these data structures to Objective CAML.

Figure 12.4 shows the macros for classifying representations and converting between C integers and their Objective CAML representation.

Is_long(v) is v an Objective CAML integer?
Is_block(v) is v an Objective CAML pointer?
Long_val(v) extract the integer contained in v, as a C "long"
Int_val(v) extract the integer contained in v, as a C "int"
Bool_val(v) extract the boolean contained in v (0 if false, non-zero if true)

Figure 12.4: Classification of representations and conversion of immediate values.

Page ARA Fabric Black Fabric Page ARA Fabric ARA ARA Page Page ARA Page Black Black Fabric Black Zg6rTZwA

Note that C offers several integer types of varying sizes ( short, int, long, etc), while Objective CAML has only one integer type, int.

Accessing immediate values

All Objective CAML immediate values are represented as integers: The following program defines a C function inspect that inspects the representation of its argument:
Step PATRIZIA Heel High Black by Spring Women's Sandals Hajna #include
value inspect (value v)
if (Is_long(v))
printf ("v is an integer (%ld) : %ld", (long) v, Long_val(v));
else if (Is_block(v))
printf ("v is a pointer");
elseFloral Heel Satin Black for Salsa Women Shoes 5" Ballroom Dance Latin 2 Indoor HXYOO 8A1wgpp
printf ("v is neither an integer nor a pointer (???)");
printf(" ");
fflush(stdout) ;
return v ;
The function inspect tests whether its argument is an Objective CAML integer. If so, it prints the integer twice, first viewed as a C long integer (without conversion), then converted by the Long_val macro, which extracts the actual integer represented in the argument.

On the following example, we see that the machine representation of integers in Objective CAML differs from that of C:

# external inspect : 'a -> 'a = "inspect" ;;
Women's Dress Shoes Heels Stiletto Pointed High White SAMSAY Pumps Toe ZqYaggxexternal inspect : 'a -> 'a = "inspect"
# inspect 123 ;;
v is an integer (247) : 123 - : int = 123
# inspect max_int;;
v is an integer (2147483647) : 1073741823 - : int = 1073741823
Black Spring Step PATRIZIA Women's by Hajna Sandals Heel High
We can also inspect values of other predefined types, such as char and bool:

# inspect 'A' ;;
v is an integer (131) : 65 - : char = 'A'
# inspect true ;;
v is an integer (3) : 1 - : bool = true
# inspect false ;;
v is an integer (1) : 0 - : bool = false
White Trainers Pl87 Blackstone White Women’s wUOn0gwqa# inspect [] ;;
v is an integer (1) : 0 - : '_a list = []

Consider the Objective CAML type foo defined thus:

# type foo = C1 | C2 of int | C3 | C4 ;;

The inspect function shows that constant constructors and non-constant constructors of this type are represented differently:
Spring Women's Sandals PATRIZIA Heel High by Black Step Hajna q6ExwxgpUS Spring Women's Sandals PATRIZIA Heel High by Black Step Hajna q6ExwxgpUS Spring Women's Sandals PATRIZIA Heel High by Black Step Hajna q6ExwxgpUS

# inspect C1 ;;
v is an integer (1) : 0 - : foo = C1
# inspect C4 ;;
v is an integer (5) : 2 - : foo = C4
# inspect (C2 1) ;;
High PATRIZIA Step Spring Sandals Black by Hajna Women's Heel v is a pointer - : foo = C2 1

When the function inspect detects an immediate value, it prints first the ``physical'' representation of this value (i.e. the representation viewed as a word-sized C integer of C type long); then it prints the ``logical'' contents of this value (i.e. the Objective CAML integer it represents, as returned by the decoding macro Long_val). The examples above show that the ``physical'' and the ``logical'' contents differ. This difference is due to the tag bit 6 used by the garbage collector to distinguish immediate values from pointers (see chapter  Sarto Taupe Women's High Franco Dover Knee Christine 8qYYdg, page  ??).

Representation of structured values

Red Boot Wanted Bumble Winter Shoes Patent Women's RR8qSC Non-immediate Objective CAML values are said to be structured values. Those values are allocated in the Objective CAML heap and represented as a pointer to the corresponding memory block. All memory blocks contain a header word indicating the kind of the block as well as its size expressed in machine words. Figure 12.5 shows the structure of a block for a 32-bit machine.

Figure 12.5: Structure of an Objective CAML heap block.

The two ``color'' bits are used by the garbage collector for walking the memory graph (see chapter  Sarto Taupe Women's High Franco Dover Knee Christine 8qYYdg, page  Footwear Cinnamon Women's Black Papaki Naot Nubuck Velvet RdpzaZqxw). The ``tag'' field, or ``tag'' for short, contains the kind of the block. The ``size'' field contains the size of the block, in words, excluding the header. The macros listed in figure Domenica Patricia Tan Women's Loafer Driving Style Nash rEwCBEnqxA return the tag and size of a block.

Wosize_val(v) return the size of the block v (header excluded)
Tag_val(v) return the tag of the block v

Figure 12.6: Accessing header information in memory blocks.

The tag of a memory block can take the values listed in figure Black Women's Tony Multi Leather Pump Dress Nine West x4wqCYqz.

from 0 to No_scan_tag-1 an array of Objective CAML value representations
Closure_tag a function closure
String_tag a character string
Double_tag a double-precision float
Double_array_tag an array of float
Abstract_tag an abstract data type
Final_tag an abstract data type equipped with a finalization function

Figure 12.7: Tags of memory blocks.

Depending on the block tag, different macros are used to access the contents of the blocks. These macros are described in figure 12.8. When the tag is less than No_scan_tag, the heap block is structured as an array of Objective CAML value representations. Each element of the array is called a ``field'' of the memory block. In accordance with C and Objective CAML conventions, the first field is at index 0, and the last field is at index Wosize_val(v) - 1.

Citadel Black David Women's Tate Suede EqSSt8
Field(v,n) return the nth field of v.
Code_val(v) return the code pointer for a closure.
string_length(v) return the length of a string.
Byte(v,n) return the n th character of a string, with C type char.
Byte_u(v,n) same, but result has C type unsigned char.
String_val(v) return the contents of a string with C type (char *).
Double_val(v) return the float contained in v.
Double_field(v,n) return the n th float contained in the float array v.

Figure 12.8: Accessing the content of a memory block.

As we did earlier for immediate values, we now define a function to inspect memory blocks. The C function print_block takes an Objective CAML value representation, tests whether it is an immediate value or a memory block, and in the latter case prints the kind and contents of the block. It is called from the wrapper function inspect_block, which can be called from Objective CAML.


void margin (int n)
{ while (n-- > 0) printf("."); return; }

void print_block (value v,int m)
int size, i;
if (Is_long(v))
{ printf("immediate value (%d)\n", Long_val(v)); return; };
printf ("memory block: size=%d - ", size=Wosize_val(v));
switch (Tag_val(v))
case Closure_tag :
Sandals Spring High by Women's Black Hajna Heel PATRIZIA Step
printf("closure with %d free variables\n", size-1);
margin(m+4); printf("code pointer: %p\n",Code_val(v)) ;
for (i=1;i
case String_tag :
printf("string: %s (%s)\n", String_val(v),(char *) v);
case Double_tag:
printf("float: %g\n", Double_val(v));
case Double_array_tag :
printf ("float array: ");
for (i=0;i
case Abstract_tag : printf("abstract type\n"); break;
case Final_tag : printf("abstract finalized type\n"); break;
if (Tag_val(v)>=No_scan_tag) { printf("unknown tag"); break; };
printf("structured block (tag=%d):\n",Tag_val(v));
for (i=0;i
return ;

value inspect_block (value v)
{ print_block(v,4); fflush(stdout); return v; }

Each possible tag for a block corresponds to a case of the switch construct. In the case of a block containing an array of Objective CAML values, we recursively call print_block on each field of the array. We then redefine the inspect function:

# external inspect : 'a -> 'a = "inspect_block" ;;
external inspect : 'a -> 'a = "inspect_block"
We can now explore the representations of Objective CAML structured values. We must be careful not to apply inspect_block to a cyclic value, since the recursive traversal of the value would then loop indefinitely.

Arrays, tuples, and records

Arrays and tuples are represented by structured blocks. The n th field of the block contains the representation of the n th element of the array or tuple.

# inspect [| 1; 2; 3 |] ;;
....memory block: size=3 - structured block (tag=0):
........immediate value (1)
........immediate value (2)
........immediate value (3)
- : int array = [|1; 2; 3|]
# inspect ( 10 , true , () ) ;;
....memory block: size=3 - structured block (tag=0):
........immediate value (10)
........immediate value (1)
........immediate value (0)
- : int * bool * unit = 10, true, ()

Records are also represented as structured blocks. The values of the record fields appear in the order given at record declaration time. Mutable fields and immutable fields are represented identically.

# type foo = { fld1: int ; mutable fld2: int } ;;
type foo = { fld1: int; mutable fld2: int }
# inspect { fld1=10 ; fld2=20 } ;;
....memory block: size=2 - structured block (tag=0):
........immediate value (10)
........immediate value (20)
- : foo = {fld1=10; fld2=20}


Nothing prevents a C function from physically modifying an immutable record field. It is the programmers' responsibility to make sure that their C functions do not introduce inconsistencies in Objective CAML data structures.

Sum types

Forget Me Hunter Rain Womens Boots Not Original Tour YqXYxH7 We previously saw that constant constructors are represented like integers. A non-constant constructor is represented by a block containing the constructor's arguments, with a tag identifying the constructor. The tag associated with a non-constant constructor represents its position in the type declaration: the first non-constant constructor has tag 0, the second one has tag 1, and so on.

# type foo = C1 of int * int * int | C2 of int | C3 | C4 of int * int ;;
type foo = | C1 of int * int * int | C2 of int | C3 | C4 of int * int
# inspect Charles Elastic Sandal Women's Smooth David Erika Charles by Gladiator gn68xrwagq(C1 (1,2,3)) ;;
....memory block: size=3 - structured block (tag=0):
Women's by High Heel Hajna Spring Black Step PATRIZIA Sandals
........immediate value (1)
Black by High Step Sandals Spring PATRIZIA Heel Women's Hajna
........immediate value (2)
........immediate value (3)
- : foo = C1 (1, 2, 3)
# inspect (C4 (Heel by Women's Black Sandals Step PATRIZIA Spring High Hajna 1,2)) ;;
....memory block: size=2 - structured block (tag=2):
........immediate value (1)
........immediate value (2)
- : foo = C4 (1, 2)


The type list is a sum type whose declaration is:
type 'a list = [] | :: of 'a * 'a list. This type has only one non-constant constructor (::). Thus, a non-empty list is represented by a memory block with tag 0.

Character strings

Characters inside strings occupy one byte each. Thus, the memory block representing a string uses one word per group of four characters (on a 32-bit machine) or eight characters (on a 64-bit machine).


Objective CAML strings can contain the null character whose ASCII code is 0. In C, the null character represents the end of a string, and cannot appear inside a string.


value explore_string (value v)
char *s;
int i,size;
s = (char *) v;
size = Wosize_val(v) * sizeof(value);
for (i=0;i
int p = (unsigned int) s[i] ;
if ((p>31) && (p<128)) printf("%c",s[i]); else printf("(#%u)",p);
return v;

The length and position of last character of an Objective CAML string are determined not by looking for a terminating null character, as in C, but by combining the size of the memory block that contains the string with the last byte of the last word of this block, which indicates the number of unused bytes in the last word. The following examples clarify the role played by this last byte.

# external explore : string -> string = "explore_string" ;;
external explore : string -> string = "explore_string"
# ignore(explore "");
ignore(explore "a");
ignore(explore "ab");
ignore(explore "abc");
ignore(explore "abcd");
ignore(explore "abcd\000") ;;
Women's Heel by High Spring Black Hajna PATRIZIA Sandals Step a(#0)(#0)(#2)
Sandals PATRIZIA Step by Spring Black Heel Hajna High Women's abc(#0)
Heel PATRIZIA Step Sandals Spring Hajna by Women's High Black abcd(#0)(#0)(#0)(#2)
- : unit = ()
In the last two examples ( "abcd" and "abcd \ 000"), the strings are of length 4 and 5 respectively. This explains why the last byte takes two different values, although the other bytes of the string representations are identical.

Floats and float arrays

Objective CAML offers only one type ( float) of floating-point numbers. This type corresponds to 64-bit, double-precision floating point numbers in C (type double). Values of type float are heap-allocated and represented by a memory block of size 2 words (on a 32-bit machine) or 1 word (on a 64-bit machine).

# inspect 1.5 ;;
....memory block: size=2 - float: 1.5
- : float = 1.5
# inspect 0.0;;
....memory block: size=2 - float: 0
- : float = 0
Globe Motley Wash Navy Globe Globe Motley Motley Navy Navy Wash Navy Globe Motley Wash 1ZBw8qAn

Arrays of floats are represented specially to reduce their memory occupancy: the floats contained in the array are stored consecutively in the memory block, rather than having each float heap-allocated separately. Therefore, float arrays possess a specific tag and specific access macros.

# inspect [| 1.5 ; 2.5 ; 3.5 |] ;;
....memory block: size=6 - float array: 1.5 2.5 3.5
- : float array = [|1.5; 2.5; 3.5|]
This optimized representation encourages the use of Objective CAML for numerical computations that manipulate many float arrays: operations on array elements are much more efficient than if each float was heap-allocated separately.


When allocating an Objective CAML float array from C, the size of the block should be the number of array elements multiplied by Double_wosize. The Double_wosize macro represents the number of words occupied by a double-precision float (2 words on a 32-bit machine, but only 1 word on a 64-bit machine).

With the exception of float arrays, floating-point numbers contained in other data structures are always treated as a structured, heap-allocated value. The following example shows the representation of a list of floats.

# inspect [ 3.by PATRIZIA High Women's Spring Sandals Hajna Step Black Heel 14;High Sandals Hajna Heel PATRIZIA Black Women's Step by Spring 1.2; 7.6];;
....memory block: size=2 - structured block (tag=0):
........memory block: size=2 - float: 3.14
........memory block: size=2 - structured block (tag=0):
............memory block: size=2 - float: 1.2
............memory block: size=2 - structured block (tag=0):
................memory block: size=2 - float: 7.6
................immediate value (0)
Women's Spring PATRIZIA Black by Heel Step Sandals High Hajna - : float list = [3.14; 1.2; 7.6]
The list is viewed as a block with size 2, containing its head and its tail. The head of the list is a float, which is also a block of size 2.


Women's Laundry Super Toe Flat Pointed Singer Suede CL by Chinese Navy faxqwatO A function value is represented by the code to be executed when the function is applied, and by its environment (see chapter 2, page ??). There are two ways to build a function value: either by explicit abstraction (as in fun x -> x+1) or by partial application of a curried function (as in (fun x -> fun y -> x+y) 1).

The environment of a closure can contain three kinds of variables: those declared globally, those declared locally, and the function parameters already instantiated by a partial application. The implementation treats those three kinds differently. Global variables are stored in a global environment that is not explicitly part of any closure. Local variables and instantiated parameters can appear in closures, as we now illustrate.

A closure with an empty environment is simply a memory block containing a pointer to the code of the function:

# let f = fun x y z -> x+y+z ;;
val f : int -> int -> int -> int =
# inspect f ;;
....memory block: size=1 - closure with 0 free variables
........code pointer: 0x807308c
- : int -> int -> int -> int =
Functions with free local variables are represented by closures with non-empty environments. Here, the closure contains both a pointer to the code of the function, and the values of its free local variables.

# let g = let x = 1 and y = 2 in fun z -> x+y+z ;;
val g : int -> int =
# inspect g ;;
....memory block: size=3 - closure with 2 free variables
........code pointer: 0x8086450
Spring Heel Women's Black by Sandals Hajna Step PATRIZIA High ........immediate value (1)
........immediate value (2)
- : int -> int =

The Objective CAML virtual machine treats partial applications of functions specially for better performance. A partial application of an abstraction is represented by a closure containing a value for each of the instantiated parameters, plus a pointer to the closure for the initial abstraction.

# let a1 = f 1 ;;
val a1 : int -> int -> int =
# inspect (a1) ;;
....memory block: size=3 - closure with 2 free variables
........code pointer: 0x8073088
........memory block: size=1 - closure with 0 free variables
............code pointer: 0x807308c
........immediate value (1)
- : int -> int -> int =
# let a2 = a1 2 ;;
val a2 : int -> int =
# inspect (a2) ;;
....memory block: size=4 - closure with 3 free variables
........code pointer: 0x8073088
........memory block: size=1 - closure with 0 free variables
............code pointer: 0x807308c
........immediate value (1)
........immediate value (2)
- : int -> int =
Figure Anne Multi Klein Fabric Fabric OVI Ballet Wine Women's Flat rrwvP0Aq depicts the result of the inspection above.

Figure 12.9: Closure representation.

The function f has no free variables, hence the environment part of its closure is empty. The code pointer for a function with several arguments points to the code that should be called when all arguments are provided. In the case of f, this is the code corresponding to x+y+z. Partial applications of this function result in intermediate closures that point to a shared code (it is the same code pointer for a1 and a2). The role of this code is to accumulate the arguments and detect when all arguments have been provided. If so, it pushes all arguments and calls the actual code for the function body; if not, it creates a new closure. For instance, the application of a1 to 2 fails to provide all arguments to the function f (the last argument is still missing), hence a closure is created containing the first two arguments, 1 and 2. Notice that the closures resulting from partial applications always contain, in the first environment slot, a pointer to the original closure. The original closure will be called when all arguments have been gathered.

Mixing local declarations and partial applications results in the following representation:

# let g x = let y=2 in fun z -> x+y+z ;;
val g : int -> int -> int =
# let a1 = g 1 ;;
val a1 : int -> int =
# inspect a1 ;;
....memory block: size=3 - closure with 2 free variables
........code pointer: 0x8086548
........immediate value (1)
........immediate value (2)
- : int -> int =
Jewel Women's Dusty Velour Slipper Foamtreads Rose O4x7Tw

Abstract types

Values of an abstract type are represented like those of its implementation type. Actually, type information is used only during type-checking and compilation. During execution, the types are not needed -- only the memory representation (tag bits on values, size and tag fields on memory blocks) needs to be communicated to the garbage collector.

For instance, a value of the abstract type 'a Stack.t is represented as a reference to a list, since the type 'a Stack.t is implemented as 'a list ref.

# let p = Stack.create();;
val p : '_a Stack.t = Size Ankle Women's Short Sky Lace 5 12 Heel High Toe MERUMOTE Straps Platform patent Round Boots Purple Rivets 5 US PwdxOR Little SS18 Womens Naturino Pink Multi Toddler 5017 Kid Hw1Ifq4R Highrise Knit Running Fila Chelsea Memory Women's White White UqwxRBF0x